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Miro Consulting specializes in software license audit defense, license management, subscription management, and cloud services, for Oracle, Microsoft & IBM.

6 Key Questions for Buying Oracle Cloud Credits

Introduced in September 2017, Oracle’s Universal Cloud Credits represent a flexible model for buying and consuming Oracle Cloud Services.

Oracle’s Universal Cloud Credits or “UCC” apply to the Platform-as-a-Service (“PaaS”) and Infrastructure-as-a-Service (“IaaS”) offerings from Oracle. Each of these has eligible services, including Analytics (data visualization), Database Integration (GoldenGate), and Data Management (Database) services for PaaS, and Compute (various types of bare metal offerings and load balancing) and Network (FastConnect) services for IaaS.

While Oracle’s Cloud Infrastructure (“OCI”) offers many different services, many organizations will want to start with a carefully chosen application to understand the machinations of the OCI: how it performs, how well it works within the organization’s environment, how it is managed, and much more.

Once vetted, the services could then be expanded. And this is where UCC comes into play. Per Oracle, organizations “gain the ability to switch the PaaS or IaaS services… without having to notify Oracle.” In other words, once the commitment has been made, unused monthly amounts can be allotted for services that are not currently in use.

For example, if an organization subscribes to Oracle Cloud Infrastructure – Database Enterprise Edition – High I/O, but is not using the entire committed monthly amount, it could easily experiment with Oracle MySQL Cloud Service or Oracle Big Data Cloud Service. Once the evaluation ends and the organization no longer uses the products, the credits would no longer be applied to them.

But there are some important questions the organization should consider when planning a UCC based Oracle Cloud investment.

1. How Do I Avoid Underutilization?

When the committed rate is under-utilized, the remainder is non-refundable and cannot be carried over to a subsequent month. The forfeiture of these dollars ought to give pause to the organization about which applications might be transitioned to the Oracle Cloud (or newly developed there) and whether there is cyclical usage to the application. For example, retail applications during the mid-November through early January period would likely see a higher degree of usage than in the summer months.

2. When do Overages Apply?

Overages – that is, when the usage exceeds the commitment rate – are charged at Pay-As-You-Go or “PAYGO” rates. For PaaS, these rates are 50% higher. That same is true when the Commitment Service Period ends. Unless renewed, the use of the services are automatically charged at the PAYGO rates.

3. What is the Rate Card (Discount) Schedule?

The rate card schedule, often referred to as the discount schedule, does not translate into a lower cost. The value proposition is additional capacity. In other words, for the full, committed spend, the organization is granted additional use privileges based on the amount and length of the commitment. For example, an organization commits to $35,000 in monthly credits and will commit to two (2) years. Per the rate card schedule, this entitles the organization to 20% additional capacity or $7,000 per month, totaling $42,000 per month. However, this caveat comes with its own caveat: The under-utilization rule remains in effect.

4. Can I BYOL – Bring Your Own License?

IaaS and PaaS support a Bring-Your-Own-License or “BYOL” construct. So the licenses that would be used on-premise can retain their value by using them for Cloud Services. However, the quantity and type of licenses (e.g., eight [8] Processor licenses) must be sufficient for the Oracle Cloud deployment and be actively covered by support. In addition, the organization would no longer be allowed to use those same licenses for on-premise deployments, for the duration of the term of the Cloud Services Commitment Service Period.

5. Are there Any Prerequisites?

Some of Oracle Cloud Services have pre-requisite services that can add to the overall cost. An example is Oracle Security Monitoring and Compliance – Security Monitoring and Analytics Edition, which requires an active subscription of Oracle Management Cloud – Log Analytics Edition. Another example would be Oracle Integration Cloud– Enterprise and Oracle Integration Cloud – Enterprise – BYOL requiring Oracle Database Cloud Service and its underlying dependencies. These pre-requisites will increase the cost.

6. What are the Usage Limitations?

Some of the Oracle Cloud Services impose limitations on usage. For example, Oracle Security and Identity Cloud Services is limited not only to number of active users under your Oracle contract terms but also to ten (10) SMS messages / user / month.

Transitioning a workload to the Oracle Cloud or developing a new Oracle Cloud-based application has many complex factors. Oracle’s Universal Cloud Credits are just one of them. Navigating through the rules around Cloud licensing can be difficult and time-consuming. Doing so with the advice of and Oracle licensing expert can help ease that journey.

Contact Miro and we can help you evaluate if a cloud credit purchase is right for you, or to help you understand your licensing compliance position with Oracle.


Licensing Oracle Apex

Oracle APEX – The Skinny on this Skinny Apporacle-apex-license

Oracle Application Express (APEX) is a web-based software development environment that runs on an Oracle database. It is considered a “Low Code” application. APEX permits developers to go from no code to low code to more code (https://blogs.oracle.com/oraclemagazine/from-low-code-to-high-controlhttps://apex.oracle.com/lowcode/ ). Oracle APEX is fully supported and comes standard as part of all Oracle Database editions. As of Oracle 11g, APEX installed by default as part of the core database install.

Official Oracle APEX Site:

https://apex.oracle.com/en/

Oracle APEX includes an integrated suite of productivity and sample apps that provide point solutions and demonstrate key functionality. These apps are a supported feature of Oracle APEX and are available for you to try, learn, use, and experiment with as you see fit. (https://apex.oracle.com/en/solutions/apps/)

Several of the many Apps included with APEX are:

  • Data Reporter: Knowledge Management, Tracking, Project Management
  • P-Track: Project Management, Team Productivity, Tracking
  • Opportunity Tracker: Tracking, Team Productivity

Cost:

Oracle APEX is a FREE development environment that runs on an Oracle database. If you have Oracle Database, you already have Oracle APEX.

Background:

Originally called Flows. First released in 2004 as HTML_DB, APEX was created by Oracle, after the development of another product called Web DB started to diverge from the original vision. APEX shares some functionality with Web DB, however it was developed from scratch and there’s no upgrade path from Web DB to APEX. Early builds of Flow had no front-end so all changes to an application had to be made in SQL*Plus via inserts, updates and deletes.

Name Changes:

Oracle APEX has gone through many name changes since its inception in 2000, which include:

  • Flows
  • Oracle Platform
  • Project Marvel
  • HTML DB

Oracle APEX can be installed on any Oracle database from version 9.2 or higher and starting from Oracle 11g it is installed with the database by default.

Oracle APEX 5.0 and higher can be installed on all editions (SE1, SE, and EE) of the Oracle database, 11.1.0.7 or higher with a valid Oracle Database Technical Support agreement; it can also be used with Oracle Database 11g Express Edition (XE) but is supported through the Oracle Technology Network discussion forum, and not through Oracle Support Services.

Advantages:

  • Discoverer reports can be converted to APEX reports
  • Easy to deploy
  • Available in the Cloud
  • Scalable
  • Server-side processing and validations
  • Basic support for group development
  • Free hosting of demo applications provided by Oracle
  • Oracle APEX applications can run on the free Oracle Express Edition (XE) database
  • Individual components of an application can be retrieved or identified using SQL, facilitating customized reports

Disadvantages:

  • Oracle APEX can only be hosted in an Oracle database.
  • Oracle APEX applications are limited in their choice of webhosts. Very few webhosts offer APEX (Oracle Database) on their hosting service package
  • There is no built-in version control and all components must be edited through the web interface.

Potential Licensing Implications:

  • When you develop an Oracle APEX application for an Oracle database that is NOT Oracle Database Express Edition (free version), then you will need to license that database.
  • When you develop a new Oracle APEX application and no version of the new application exists is in production, then you do not need to license the Oracle database; however, when your new application goes into production it will require a database license. Additionally, from that point forward, any Oracle Databases that you support, test, and develop will need to be fully licensed.

Oracle Discoverer Replacement?

Yes potentially. Oracle Discoverer was essentially an Ad Hoc query tool. Oracle Discoverer users will have the option to continue to use an unsupported version of Discoverer. However, you might find that the supported Oracle APEX app can meet many of the requirements you used Discoverer for, and possibly more. For one example, Oracle APEX can be a replacement for DBA’s which had used Oracle Discoverer to develop Ad-Hoc reporting. Many DBA’s find the application ‘Data Reporter’ included with Oracle APEX to be very useful in this aspect alone.

Data Reporter provides business users with ad-hoc reporting capabilities on pre-approved data sources without granting developer or write access. Users can easily design their own reports, calendars, dashboards and more using simple wizards” (https://apex.oracle.com/en/solutions/apps )

 


Extended Support ending for SQL Server 2008/2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008/2008 R2

Microsoft announced that Extended Support for SQL Server 2008/2008 R2 will end on July 9, 2019 and Extended Support for Windows Server 2008/2008 R2 will end on January 14, 2020.

Customers that remain on these versions beyond the deadline will no longer receive patches or security updates and would be limited to Self-help Online Support. Self-help Online Support is usually available for a minimum of 12 months after the product reaches the end of Extended Support and is limited to resolving common issues through public knowledge base articles, FAQ, troubleshooting tools, and other resources.

Options

Customers that need additional time or prefer the flexibility of choosing when to upgrade their workloads have two options:

  • Rehost to Azure Virtual Machine or move to Azure SQL Database Managed Instance
  • Upgrade on-premise environments

Azure

Customers have the option to rehost their SQL Server 2008/2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008/2008 R2 workloads on Azure Virtual Machine (VM). With this option, Microsoft is offering up to three years of Extended Security Updates with no additional charge over the standard Azure VM pricing. This option is available to customers with Software Assurance coverage for the servers that require Extended Security Support.

Customers also have the option to move their SQL Server 2008/2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008/2008 R2 workloads to Azure SQL Database Managed Instance. The Azure SQL Database Managed Instance is a managed database-as-a-service that will be available in the fourth quarter of 2018. Customers moving to Azure SQL Database Managed Instance do not need Extended Security Updates since this is a fully managed solution.

On-Premise

Customers who wish to remain on-premise and need additional time to upgrade to the latest SQL Server and Window Server versions can purchase up to three years of Extended Security Updates. This option is available to customers with Software Assurance or Subscription licenses under an Enterprise Agreement enrollment and can be purchased annually to cover only the servers that require Extended Security Support. The pricing for this option is 75% of the full license cost annually.

Conclusion

Organizations should identify every application running on SQL Server 2008/2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008/2008 R2 and choose the right migration and/or upgrade path for each application before the deadline goes into effect to avoid security and compliance risks. Please contact your trusted Miro Analyst or Miro Account Manager for questions or assistance with End of Support options for SQL Server 2008/2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008/2008 R2 to ensure a fully secure and compliant environment.


Java updates will require a Commercial License for Businesses after January 2019

  • Java is one of the most widely used programming language for developing and delivering mobile applications, games, web-based content, and enterprise software.
  • Oracle has provided free public updates of Java SE since the acquisition of Sun Microsystems in 2010.
  • As of January 2019, Oracle will require business users to obtain a commercial (subscription) license to receive updates for Oracle JDK

Java SE Public UpdatesJava Compliance, Java Licensing, Java SE

Oracle announced that effective January 2019, public updates for business, commercial, or production use of Oracle Java SE 8 will require a commercial license and public updates for individual, personal use of Oracle Java SE 8 will remain available at least through the end of 2020. Therefore, customers that remain on Java SE 8 beyond the deadlines will no longer receive updates without a Java SE Subscription.

The following table includes a list of Java SE public updates by release version that Oracle will make available to commercial and personal users:

Release General Availability Date End of Public Updates Notification

Commercial User – End of Public Updates

Personal User – End of Public Updates

7 July 2011 March 2014 April 2015 April 2015
8 March 2014 September 2017 January 2019 December 2020
9
(Non-LTS)
Septermber 2017 September 2017 March 2018 March 2018
10
(Non-LTS)
March 2018 March 2018 September 2018 September 2018


Release Schedule

Oracle has also made changes in regard to the Java SE product release schedule and the type of release offered. As of Java SE 8, Oracle will designate a release as a long-term support (LTS) release every three years. Non-LTS releases are considered a cumulative set of implementation enhancements of the most recent LTS release.

For example, Java SE9 (Non-LTS) release is superseded by Java SE 10 (Non-LTS) release which is superseded by Java SE 11 (LTS) release. Java SE 11 is a long-term support release and Oracle customers will therefore receive Premier Support and periodic releases even after Java 12 (Non-LTS) is released.

Java SE Support

Customers who have Oracle Java SE Advanced, Oracle Java SE Advanced Desktop, Oracle Java SE Suite, or Java SE with an Oracle product will continue to receive support and updates as usual. Customers who require critical bug fixes, security fixes, and general maintenance including previous versions can purchase Java SE support through a Java SE subscription.

The following table depicts Oracle’s Java SE Support Roadmap:

Release General Availability Date Premier Support until Notification Extended Support Until Sustaining Support
6 December 2006 December 2015 December 2018 Indefinite
7 July 2011 July 2019 July 2022 Indefinite
8
(LTS)
March 2014 March 2022 March 2025 Indefinite
9
(Non-LTS)
September 2017 March 2018 Not Available Indefinite
10
(Non-LTS)
March 2018 September 2018 Not Available Indefinite
11
(LTS)
September 2018 September 2023 September 2026 Indefinite
12
(Non-LTS)
March 2019 September 2019 Not Available Indefinite

Pricing

The Oracle Java SE subscription price for use on servers and/or cloud deployments is $25.00 per month per processor with volume discounts available. The Oracle Java SE subscription price for use on desktops is $2.50 per month per user, with volume discounts available. One, two, and three year subscriptions are available.

Options

Customers that need more time or prefer the flexibility of choosing when to migrate their applications would need to purchase a Java SE subscription. Per Oracle, ‘From Java 11 forward… Oracle JDK builds and OpenJDK builds will be essentially identical… yet with some cosmetic and packaging differences.’

Customers that opt not to purchase a Java SE subscription can opt to transition Java SE applications to OpenJDK binaries under the general public license (GPL) with classpath extension. OpenJDK builds are available on a six-month release cycle with scheduled quarterly security updates.

Conclusion

Organizations should review the availability of Java SE public updates and the Java SE Support Roadmap and identify every application running Java before the new Oracle Java SE licensing changes go into effect to avoid non-compliance and financial exposure. Please contact Miro for questions or assistance with the new Oracle Java SE licensing changes to ensure a fully compliant environment.

Contact Miro


Cloud Strategy Survey

Miro is conducting a survey with thousands of organizational leaders in the public, private and governmental sectors regarding their use of cloud technologies and cloud strategies.

As in industry leader, we greatly value your knowledge and expertise regarding the use of cloud technologies and cloud strategies.

All survey respondents will receive a copy of the results so as to better manage and plan their future cloud strategies. Take the Survey (completion time 5 minutes)

Take the Cloud Strategy Survey (5 min)


When is a Terabyte not a Terabyte?

When you’re licensing with IBM (and possibly others*).

This licensing metric used for IBM software storage products seems to be self-described by its name – Terabyte.  A Terabyte (TB) is a unit for measuring digital information.   Tera– represents the fourth power of 1000, or 1012, or one trillion bytes.

However when you read IBM’s licensing definition of the Terabyte metric, it’s not 1012A Terabyte is 2 to the 40th power bytes.  Outside of IBM, 240 is generally considered a tebibyte (TiB).

The difference between 1012 and 240 is not huge – only 99,511,627,776 bytes.   A rough ratio of 1 TiB to 1.1 TB can be used.

Where this comes into play with IBM licensing is when storage is measured in real Terabyte (TB) and then someone mistakenly buys that quantity of Terabyte licenses from IBM without verifying the underlying definition of a Terabyte, and then I see it again with software audits.

If I have 500 Terabyte licenses, it covers 500 TiB or 500 IBM TB.  Once the numbers are expanded to reflect the definition behind each measurement, it would be discovered that 500 TB licenses covers 500 TiB or 549 TB (1012 bytes).  If the conversion was done for the license purchase but not applied to an audit situation, you may be found mistakenly non-compliant for the range between 501 and 549 TB deployed.

Over time, IBM has realized this could cause confusion and has updated some products dashboards to clarify which measurement is in use:

Spectrum Control showing measurement in GiB and TiB

Best practice would be to understand the vendor’s license definition even if it seems self-explanatory, and also how the deployed product is measured.

* Google Cloud Storage uses the same Terabyte definition as IBM – a Terabyte is 240 byte.


Enabling and Disabling Oracle Database Options and Management Packs

  • Oracle Databases include extra options that are not covered by the basic license
  • Some of these options are enabled by default when creating new databases
  • Organizations that enable extra options without licensing are out of compliance

Oracle provides a number of database options and management packs for the Oracle Database, which are licensable extra cost options. Unfortunately, many of our clients are surprised to learn that they are unknowingly using unlicensed database options and management packs and are therefore out of compliance. The reason for the confusion is due to the fact that depending on the version, database options and management packs are installed and many are enabled automatically.

As a post-implementation step, an organization should evaluate which database options and management packs meet the needs of the organization and determine if additional licensing is required. Any database options and management packs that are not licensed should be disabled prior to creating and using Oracle databases to prevent accidental use. Organizations should check usage on a regular basis to highlight compliance issues early and limit financial risks.

For database options, prior to 11gR2, Oracle provided an option to select or deselect database options during the installation process of the Oracle Database. As of 11gR2, this option is not available and all of the components that are licensed under the specific database edition are installed and many are enabled automatically.

CHOPT
Oracle provides a command-line utility called CHOPT to enable or disable Oracle options depending on the version. The ‘Y’ in the following table indicates that the option can be enabled or disabled using the CHOPT utility.

Description  db_option  11gR2 12.1 12.2 18
Advanced Analytics oaa N N Y Y
Data Mining RDBMS Files dm Y Y N N
Database Vault dv Y N N N
Label Security lbac Y N N N
On-Line Analytical Processing olap Y Y Y Y
Partitioning partitioning Y Y Y Y
Real Application Testing rat Y Y Y Y
Database Extensions for .NET 1.x ode_net Y N N N
Database Extensions for .NET 2.0 ode_net_2 Y N N N

 

CHOPT will not remove database schemas and objects. This utility provides the benefit of easily enabling in the event that an option is licensed for use at a later stage. CHOPT is located in $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory. Prior to running CHOPT, verify if a database option is enabled or disabled by querying the V$OPTION view. The Oracle database should be shutdown prior to running the CHOPT utility. The syntax to enable or disable an option is as follows:

chopt [ enable | disable] db_option

After running the CHOPT utility, startup the Oracle database and verify that the option has been changed by querying the V$OPTION view.

Management Packs
For management packs, Oracle Enterprise Manager (Grid Control or Cloud Control) can be used to enable or disable management packs through the Management Pack Access page.

These management packs include:

  • Diagnostics Pack
  • Tuning Pack
  • Data Masking and Subsetting Pack
  • Cloud Management Pack
    • Database Lifecycle Management Pack
    • Change Management Pack
    • Configuration Management Pack
    • Provisioning
    • Patch Automation Pack

Diagnostics Pack
The Diagnostic and Tuning Pack functionality can be accessed through Enterprise Manager and database server APIs and command-line interfaces. As of 11g, Oracle provides a dynamic initialization parameter called control_management_pack_access to control access to the Diagnostic and Tuning Pack with one of the following values:

  • NONE – Diagnostic and Tuning Packs are disabled.
  • DIAGNOSTIC – Diagnostic Pack is enabled.
  • DIAGNOSTIC + TUNING – Diagnostic and Tuning Pack are enabled. This is the default parameter.

Prior to changing, verify which initialization parameter value is in use by typing the following at the SQL prompt:

SQL> show parameter control_management_pack_access;

If unlicensed, the control_management_pack_access should be disabled by changing the initialization parameter value to NONE. The control_management_pack_access initialization parameter can be changed by typing the following at the SQL prompt:

SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET control_management_pack_access = <value>;

After changing, verify that the initialization parameter value has been successfully changed.

Database option and management pack usage can be checked by querying the SYS.DBA_FEATURE_USAGE_STATISTICS view, which provides usage information such as the feature name, version number, whether a feature is currently in use, detected usages, first usage date, and last usage date. The DBA_FEATURE_USAGE_STATISTICS view is automatically updated once a week; however, the view can be manually updated by executing the following procedure:

SQL> EXEC SYS.DBMS_FEATURE_USAGE_INTERNAL.exec_db_usage_sampling(SYSDATE);

Conclusion
Many of our clients are surprised to learn that they have usage for unlicensed database options and management packs. Non-compliance may result in the organization paying significant penalties and purchasing licenses at a higher cost. Organizations should disable unlicensed database options and management packs to prevent accidental use and should regularly check usage to highlight compliance issues early and limit financial risks. Please contact your trusted Miro Analyst or Miro Account Manager for questions or assistance with preventing accidental usage and determining database options and management packs usage (including options, packs, and features not mentioned in this document) to ensure a fully compliant environment.


10 Oracle Data Recovery Mistakes That Put You Out of Compliance

10 Oracle Data Recovery Mistakes That Put You Out of Compliance
Having a data recovery strategy in place is critical to ensuring business continuity in the event of an outage or disaster. When developing a data recovery strategy, it is essential to take into consideration the different licensing rules when deploying backups, failover (active/passive), and high-availability (active/active) scenarios.

Many of our customers remain confused regarding the licensing requirements for Oracle data recovery environments. As a result, this could cause the organization to be out-of-compliance and fail an audit. Therefore, it is important to understand these differences as there are specific occasions when Oracle licensed customers do not have to purchase licenses for every server/node.

The following are common misconceptions our customers have encountered in regard to licensing Oracle data recovery environments:

1. Nightly Backup

Oracle customer copies/stores a nightly backup copy of the production database data to the test/development server not knowing that from an Oracle licensing perspective, this would be interpreted as a standby configuration and therefore the licensing metric (including options and management packs) for this server must match the associated production server.

2. Unlimited Testing and Validation

Oracle customer believes that the testing and validation of database backups is unlimited and has no restrictions; however, from an Oracle licensing perspective, customers are allowed to restore the database to an unlicensed server (for the purpose of testing the physical copies of the backups) up to four times, not exceeding two days per test, in a given calendar year.

3. Monthly Maintenance

Oracle customer has an accepted failover configuration and brings down the production server once a month for maintenance not knowing that from an Oracle licensing perspective, downtime for maintenance purposes counts towards the ten-day policy for failover and therefore must be fully licensed.

4. Standby vs. Production Licensing Metrics

Oracle customer has different licensing metrics applied to their standby server than their corresponding production server; however, in terms of licensing, Oracle requires that customers apply the same metric to both production and standby servers (including options and management packs).

5. Data and Binaries on a Single Array

Oracle customer copies/stores a backup copy of the database data on a disk array that also includes Oracle binaries, which has access to the same data; however, from an Oracle licensing perspective, this would be interpreted as a standby configuration and therefore must be fully licensed. Additionally, the licensing metric (including options and management packs) for this server must match the associated production server.

6. Failover Definition

Oracle customer configures what they believe is a “failover” environment based on the vendor’s technical whitepaper; however, the term “failover” is a general industry term that is often used to describe a solution that is considered a standby configuration according to Oracle Data Recovery Methods.

7. Real Application Clusters (RAC) Configuration

Oracle customer believes that one of the servers/nodes in a Real Application Clusters (RAC) configuration can be considered as failover (active/passive) server/node; however, from an Oracle licensing perspective, an Oracle RAC environment is considered high-availability (active/active) and therefore all servers/nodes must be licensed.

8. Failover Limitations per Cluster

Oracle customer has a failover configuration with multiple failover servers accessing a single storage array; however, from an Oracle licensing perspective, only one failover server in the cluster can be unlicensed.

9. Multiple Storage Arrays

Oracle customer has a failover configuration with two servers accessing different storage arrays; however, from an Oracle licensing perspective, this would be considered a remote mirroring configuration and therefore both servers must be fully licensed. Additionally, the same licensing metric (including options and management packs) must be applied to both servers.

10. Data Guard

Oracle customer believes that since Data Guard is included with Oracle Database Enterprise Edition, the standby server does not need to be licensed; however, from an Oracle licensing perspective, any Data Guard scenario would be interpreted as a standby configuration and therefore must be fully licensed. Additionally, the licensing metric (including options and management packs) for this server must match the associated production server.

Summary

The following is a recap of Oracle’s licensing rules when deploying backups, failover (active/passive), and high-availability (active/active) scenarios:

Backups/Testing
In this type of data recovery, Oracle permits customers to store a backup copy of the database data on storage devices (tape, disk, cloud) without the purchase of additional licenses. In the event of a failure, the backup files can be used to reconstruct the Oracle database.
Oracle permits a licensed customer, for the purpose of testing physical copies of backups, to restore the database to an unlicensed server up to four times, not exceeding two days per test, in a given calendar year. When testing is complete, the restored database must be removed from the unlicensed server; otherwise, the server must be licensed.

Failover (Active/Passive)
In this type of data recovery, servers/nodes are configured in a cluster and are connected to a single disk array. The production server/node acts as a primary node. The Oracle database software is installed on both the production and failover server(s)/node(s); however, the database is installed on the shared disk array. In the event of a failure, the clustering software will switch control from the primary server/node disk subsystem to the secondary (failover) server/node.

From an Oracle licensing perspective, failover applies to an active/passive clustered environment where only the primary (production) server/node is actively running Oracle software and the failover server/node is effectively idle (not running) and will only be used in the event that a failure occurs or maintenance is required. Therefore, Oracle permits a licensed customer to run a failover server/node without any additional licenses on the condition that the failover period does not exceed a maximum of ten days in a given calendar year.

This failover period also includes downtime for maintenance. Once the failover/maintenance period has exceeded ten days, the failover server/node must be licensed. Oracle only permits one failover server/node per cluster. Therefore, if additional servers/nodes are configured as failover, those servers/nodes must be licensed. When licensing this type of scenario, the same license metric must be applied to both production and failover servers/nodes.

High-Availability (Active/Active)
In this type of data recovery, the Oracle database software and the database are installed on both the production and standby/data recovery servers, which are usually located in different geographic locations. The data at the standby/data recovery server is kept in sync with production through some form of data replication, mirroring, or copying. In the event of a failure or disaster, the standby/data recovery server can be activated as the primary with little or no disruption or data loss.

From an Oracle licensing perspective, both the production and standby/data recovery servers must be fully licensed. This rule also applies when Oracle software can access the data that is located on separate servers, sites, or storage devices. With a high-availability (Active/Active) configuration, the ten-day policy does not apply. When licensing this type of scenario, the same license metric must be applied to both production and standby/data recovery servers.

Conclusion

In general, all Oracle installations must be licensed; however, there are a few exceptions. It is important to understand these licensing rules and exceptions to avoid costly non-compliance penalties. Please contact your trusted Miro Analyst or Miro Account Manager if you are considering or have a data recovery strategy in place. Miro can assist your organization with assessing all of the risks and opportunities to maximize your software investment while ensuring a fully compliant environment.